History final

Modernity is the break from tradition, which assumes progress to be made. The concept of the present time has changed the ways in which humans understand the world they live in by economic structures, government, technology, culture and the environment.

Modernity has brought new forms of expression in terms of knowledge. Varied communication strategies bring in a fundamental shift in understanding the world. The change took a lot of time to be done, and the main catalyst was to realize that human beings have place in the world (Modernity P.1).


 The result of modernization is that some events that used to happen naturally can now be induced. Humans are nature's creation and, therefore, have a hand in controlling the environment. People use logic, reasons and experimentation known as scientific methods (Modernity P.1) to effect changes.


The realm of politics reached contemporaneity when people started questioning sources of authority. Monarchs claimed that they had the right to rule because God gave them the right to rule (Modernity P.1).


Entrepreneurship also a modern economic structure based on competition and wealth expansion. Under capitalism, companies are privately owned. Wealthy people played a significant role in the new democracies. Capitalists became a powerful, influential group. The group formed unions and wrote the bill of rights and constitutions. The investors influenced the government to institute the regulations that secured the health of workers (Modernity p.2).


The primary cause of modernity is technology. Such know-hows assisted humans in increasing the production levels of commodities. Prior to factories, people built products out of their hands and it took a lot of their time and efforts (Modernity p.2).


Environmentally, modernity has produced immense benefits but has also created terrible costs. New factories and methods of transportation changed the environment through urbanization (Modernity p.3).


Excessive production activities have caused scenic degradation and-and demographic changes. Modernity led to the replacement of family farms and artisans shops to factories. The result was joblessness and people needed activities to make money that will enable them to buy products from the factories (Modernity p.3).


Unemployment caused the movement of people from rural to urban areas. Congestion in towns caused sanitation problems that lowered the lifespan of the people. The deterioration of life has been brought about because cities are overpopulated and lacked proper sanitation (Modernity p.3).


Land that used to be communal was now confidentially owned. Modernity meant owning your property and one could be considered and would be allowed to take part in an election. Those who could not afford own property would work in factories or privileged people (Modernity p.3). Factories, Railroads, highways and seaports altered the scenery (Modernity p.3).


Culture has also been modified in the manner that education has taken the center stage. Education is seen as the modern idea, which is free and same for all. No matter the class, race or gender, education has been taken as the same body of knowledge (Modernity p.3).


The mass production of garments and food in factories also contribute to modern culture (Modernity p.3). This type of culture along with our government and educational structures help to create another kind of modernity called self-rule (Modernity p.3)


Essay 2 (Question 3)


It is obvious that industrialization changed the face of the world in periods that span the 18th and the 19th centuries. It is also the timeline within that many scholars came up with ideas that run the world today. One of such scholars is Karl Marx. The ideas postulated by Marx are so high and cut across many life disciplines as they are known today. Marx contributed to history, economics, politics, and divinity. In this essay, the paper analyzes the reasons why Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto. It will also reveal the promises that Marx makes to the workers in the factories in Europe. Finally, the analysis will establish whether the manifesto rejects or vouches for the advancement of modernity.


The primary reason Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto is that the level of inequality that existed in Europe at the time saddened him. Two major jobs existed at the time. There were factory jobs where workers made and sold merchandise for the plant owners. Both workers and owners of factors of production had to coexist in a skewed society. The gap between the rich and the poor was steadily increasing and that made Marx look at things in the lens of exploitation and slavery to paid work. Marx believed that inequality would exist for as long as capital remained to be the central force in all relations. In the introduction, Marx related the freeman and the slave, lord and serf, patrician and plebeian, oppressor and oppressed (Manifesto, n.d, 1). The manifesto brings out the divergent nature of the “haves” and “have-nots” in society.


In the manifesto, Marx promises the workers not to worry because a revolution is imminent. Despite the struggle the workers go through, there will be an end to the harsh conditions that the bourgeoisie put before them. Marx says that the bourgeoisie has created tools of prosperity that will destroy them (Manifesto, n.d, p.2). His ideas are practical because the bourgeoisie are sitting on a time bomb. They have created a society that is very much segregated in terms of wealth and influence. There are few wealthy men and many poor men who are the workers. In the final instance, Marx put an expectation on the people that the workers, who are many, will revolt and bring the bourgeois down.


In its narrative spirit, the Manifesto is indifferent. It is speaking neither for the case of industrialization nor against it. Marx intended to bring to attention issues that the society in the capitalist state overlooked at the time. It was a warning that in a trading system where justice is not served, a revolution should be expected. In short, Marx supported industrialization but within the principles of humanity and not oppression.


Primary Source Analysis


The text under analysis is a part of the Memoirs of the private life of Marie Antoinette, the queen of France in the early 19th century. Madam Campan, the compiler and the narrator of the memoirs was the lady-in-waiting of the Queen of France before the French Revolution. She was well educated and also served as an educator and writer.


Eva March Tappan first published the Memoirs of Madame Campan in 1914. The book title was geared towards presenting the world history in the form of stories, art, and songs. The memoir is a masterpiece of the typical life of the queen as narrated by a first-hand observer.


The source talks about the queen’s private life. It details the hierarchy of the service providers that bound the queen. It also gives a snippet view of the protocol and traditional expectations of the. How the queen dressed, ate, slept and associated is explained. It was some robotic lifestyle full of perfected service from the maids and decrees in case of failure to perform duties efficiently.


The 19th century was the time when capitalism showed its ugly head to the world where the bourgeoisie controlled the workers with an iron hand. The inequality that is experienced today stems mainly from the activities of the 1800s. At the time of the reign of Queen Antoinette of France, a life-changing event took place. The famous French revolution is a classic example of What Marx predicted. Marx predicted that the workers would revolt against their masters because of economic distress. The memoirs reveal that the bourgeoisie treated the rest of the population with so much contempt.


The memoir has a profound relationship to the events of the early 19th century. The French revolution began as a result of the people feeling oppressed by the bourgeoisie. The revolution ended with the public being promised a fair treatment from the state as far as the wage rate and the taxes were concerned. The struggle was as a result of oppression by the masters. In the case of Madame Campan memoirs, it is evident that the queen was a clown. She had the tendency to domesticate fellow humans and overwork them on trivial matters like taking care of her toilet.


In conclusion, the memoirs give a better understanding of how royalty treats the ordinary man. Those in power have no regard for the poor and look at them as lesser humans.




"Internet History Sourcebooks." Internet History Sourcebooks. Web. 30 Sept. 2015.


Image Analysis


Pictures are always a reflection of our past circumstances and show different aspects of the life a human. With respect to the photo, subjugation has been highlighted on the premise of sub-par workers who possess the enormous piece of the picture. It demonstrates a scaffold between the old class societies from numerous points of view over the span of development.


The photo draws out the feeling of harshness towards a particular race where the greater part of the pictures is dark individuals. The image also shows the poor working conditions subjected to the workers. The picture seems to have been taken over a century ago. It is not well lit, and the texture and quality are reduced. The picture is large and appears to communicate oppression and poverty among a particular class of people during the slave period.


The image comprises of the workers who seem to be exhausted. The portrait also shows a well-dressed category of individuals who appear to be the supervisors of the workers. A sign of racism can also be depicted in the image since the black race has been painted vividly as the worker. The white race is seen smartly dressed and seems to be foreseeing the workers duties.


The people in the photo are crowded together to create symmetry. Thus, the pose reveals that the job description of the majority of people in the picture is similar. The cropping of the photo seems to focus majorly on the workers. It also reflects the broadly the warehouses where some of the workers appear to be emerging in the picture. However, the photo obscures the machinery that is used for work.


The color of the picture is in black and white. The black color seems to have taken the center stage of the portrait to signify little hope. The white color is seen as patches on people's clothing with women in the photo having the largest chunk. The white color shows a little concern for the population in the picture.


The image has clearly defined lines and concentrated much on the occupants of the photo and there working spot. The images in the picture are real, and this depicts that the photographer wanted to send a message of unworthiness of the people. The other depiction of the photo could be that, the photographer wanted to show the faces of people after a tedious job.


The picture lacks texture since the background is poorly lit and only shows trees and dilapidated vegetation. The buildings in the background are also in poor state and show careless maintenance of properties. This foreground is excessively lit and shows that the photographer was not steady when taking the photo. The photo clearly shows the lack of keenness as portrayed by the poor texture it brings out.


According to this analysis, my impression of the picture is weakened. The main reason of it is the composition, lighting and concentration in the photo seemed to signify inadequacy of humanity.




The portfolio questions pay much attention to modernity and inequality in society. The history of the modern life experienced today is well brought out. Industrialization is propagated as the cause of the modern world. Politics, technology and economics play a significant role in transforming society.


Modernity has seen the alteration of human relations in several aspects. One of the effects of modernity is that culture is constantly changing where the less vital concepts are shed off and new ones adopted. On the other hand, modernity has enabled man to control easily and interact with nature in ways that were not possible in earlier times. For instance, it is possible for man to predict an earthquake, preserve a dead body for years, and even explore space. There is a lot that comes with modernization in the face of civilization.


On the other hand, industrialization resonates with the urge to become modernized. Industrialization is the product of creative innovation of new ways of doing things. Better standards of living are achieved where industries produce goods and services that help to make life easier. Today there are products of all types that make life more easy and comfortable to live.


The article on source analysis opens an avenue into discussing the lives enjoyed by the bourgeoisie during the industrial revolution era. It brings into focus some of the compelling factors that forced individuals to seek a better life for the capitalist state. It explains why people will struggle to be owners of factors of production and not just workers. Its focus is to show that inequality in life will always exist and that individuals are either made to serve or to be served.


The whole assignment brings to the attention the fact that History repeats itself. At the time when the French revolution took place, there were crises in many parts of the world. Countries like England and Italy were busy colonizing some areas of the world. Petite development activity was taking place in Africa, and the USA had just gained her independence. The current uprisings in most parts of the globe symbolize a resurgence of the revolutions experience in the 1800s. The Arab world has seen one revolution after another since it first happened in Tunisian capital in 2010. At the moment, Libya, Egypt, and Syria are experiencing failing political systems. Such events can be directly linked to what Marx said in his Communist Manifesto.


Another form of oppression is brought out in the image that is analyzed in the portfolio one assignment. The fact that slavery dehumanized the African race is quite visible. Wherever there is a slave, there is a master. The master belongs to the class of the bourgeoisie. As much as he enjoys the services provided by his slave, none can be sure to dominate his or her slave all his lifetime. The various slave rebellions witnessed across Europe and America also depict the class struggle.


My understanding of fairness in society is that no political system should be purely capitalist. And neither should an economic system be purely communist. An intelligent mix must exist where individuals are rewarded for their excellence at what they do. At the same time, there must be capital goods for everyone. Such a system can be achieved only if the government looks at issues objectively at all times. Capitalism will foster hard work because of the expected rewards. On the other hand, Communism will promote brotherhood and as such no man will feel utterly impoverished. The government must have rules for fair play; strictly guiding business based on laws that encourage equal opportunity for every citizen. Angry masses will eventually overhaul an oppressive regime.